A quantum computer is — or, perhaps more accurately phrased, would be — a wholly different order of mechanism than anything the human species has ever constructed. Gaza rocket fusillade on southern Israel resumes after brief overnight lull.
Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities geared variously towards trade, politics, or religion. Some had large, dense populationsbut others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations.
Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistanexisting from about BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50, or more and a sophisticated sanitation system. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes.
In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece developed the polisan association of male landowning citizens who collectively constituted the city. Under the authority of its empireRome transformed and founded many cities coloniaeand with them brought its principles of urban architecture, design, and society.
In the Andes, the first urban centers developed in the Norte Chico civilizationChavin and Moche cultures, followed by major cities in the HuariChimu and Inca cultures. The Norte Chico civilization included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru.
It is the oldest known civilization in the Americas, flourishing between the 30th century BC and the 18th century BC. Later cultures such as the Aztec drew on these earlier urban traditions.
In the remnants of the Roman Empirecities of late antiquity gained independence but soon lost population and importance. In the Holy Roman Empirebeginning in the 12th. Bythese cities, as far as still part of the empire, became part of the Imperial Estates governing the empire with the emperor through the Imperial Diet.
In Italy medieval communes developed into city-states including the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Genoa. Their power was later challenged and eclipsed by the Dutch commercial cities of GhentYpresand Amsterdam.
Early modern[ edit ] In the West, nation-states became the dominant unit of political organization following the Peace of Westphalia in the seventeenth century.
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However, most towns remained small. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas the old Roman city concept was extensively used. Cities were founded in the middle of the newly conquered territories, and were bound to several laws regarding administration, finances and urbanism.
Industrial age[ edit ] The growth of modern industry from the late 18th century onward led to massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas.
England led the way as London became the capital of a world empire and cities across the country grew in locations strategic for manufacturing. Industrialized cities became deadly places to live, due to health problems resulting from overcrowdingoccupational hazards of industry, contaminated water and air, poor sanitationand communicable diseases such as typhoid and cholera.
Factories and slums emerged as regular features of the urban landscape. America's "Steel Belt" became a " Rust Belt " and cities such as DetroitMichigan, and Gary, Indiana began to shrinkcontrary to the global trend of massive urban expansion. Urbanization Clothes hang neatly and visibly in these Jakarta dwellings on the water near a dump.
Urbanization is the process of migration from rural into urban areas, driven by various political, economic, and cultural factors. Until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the rural agricultural population and towns featuring markets and small-scale manufacturing.
The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairsreported in that for the first time more than half of the world population lives in cities.
Asia is home to by far the greatest absolute number of city-dwellers:Over the course of years, using everything from books, magazines, and television to computer-generated imaging, a multi-generational conspiracy has succeeded, in the minds of the masses, to pick up the fixed Earth, shape it into a ball, spin it in circles, and throw it around the Sun!
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The incremental learning derives its name from the incremental nature of the learning process. In incremental learning, all facets of knowledge receive a regular treatment, and there is a regular inflow of new knowledge that builds upon the past knowledge.